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0.0001LUX ~ 0.00008LUX

click to enlarge...Specially configured to achieve the 0.0001Lux ~ 0.00008Lux illumination brings you clear video quality especially viewing in the extreme poor light environments and even can see in the total darkness with no lighting support when the SENS-UP shutter speed increased to the maximum x256 ~ x512.



550TVL & Higher Resolution

click to enlarge...The combination of Sony Super HAD CCD image sensor and DNR digital signal process brought up to the next level of the CCTV video resolution.




click to enlarge... At daytime, IR light is filtered away in the camera by the IR-cut filter in order to render color images that humans are used to. When light conditions are too dark to render color images, the IR-cut filter is automatically removed to enable the camera to make use of the IR light to produce a high quality black & white video.



Auto Filter Change

At daytime, IR light is filtered away in the camera by the IR-cut filter in order to render color images that humans are used to. When light conditions are too dark to render color images, the IR-cut filter is automatically removed to enable the camera to make use of the IR light to produce a high quality black & white video.



Auto Gain or Level Control 
(AGC) or (ALC)

Automatic Gain Control, an electronic circuit that amplifies the video signal when the strength of the signal falls below a given value



Auto Iris (Optical)

Automatically controls the shuttle speed 0~1/300,000 sec and adjusts the LUX sensitivity by the motor circuit. Which makes the light-receiving hole on a lens larger or smaller according to the amount of light received into the lens. Automatic Iris lenses are generally more efficient than the electric shutter since they actually control the amount of light reaching the sensor as opposed to simply adjusting shutter speed.



Auto White Balance (AWB)

Auto adjustment that makes sure the white color we view directly will also appear white in the image is referred to as white balance.



Back Light Correction (BLC)

A feature of the camera used to help correct an image with more light behind the subject being viewed and the subject appears dark without backlight compensation.




A balun, pronounced /'bælun/ ("bal-un"), is a passive electronic device that converts between balanced and unbalanced electrical signals. They also used to extend both monochrome or color video signal distance up to several miles over UTP cable. Baluns can take many forms and their presence is not always obvious. They always involve some form of electromagnetic coupling.




Pronounced bawd, the number of signaling elements that occur each second.



Cable Type for
CCTV Application



Transmission Distance Limit


Short for unshielded twisted pair, a popular type of cable that consists of two unshielded wires twisted around each other. Due to its low cost, UTP cabling is used extensively for local-area networks (LANs) and telephone connections. UTP is also finding increasing use in video applications, primarily in security cameras. Many middle to high-end cameras include a UTP output with setscrew terminals. This is made possible by the fact that UTP cable bandwidth has improved to match the baseband of television signals. While the video recorder most likely still has unbalanced BNC connectors for standard coaxial cable, a balun is used to convert from 100-ohm balanced UTP to 75-ohm unbalanced and extend the transmission range of real-time monochrome or color video up to several miles. A balun can also be used at the camera end for ones without a UTP output. Only one pair is necessary for each video signal. UTP cabling does not offer as high bandwidth or as good protection from interference as coaxial or fiber optic cables, but it is less expensive and easier to work with. Cat 3, Cat 5/5e, Cat 6 , and Cat 7 are commonly known type of the UTP cable.

up to 500ft


A type of wire that consists of a center wire surrounded by insulation and then a grounded shield of braided wire. The shield minimizes electrical and radio frequency interference. Coaxial cabling is the primary type of cabling used by the cable TV industry and is also widely used for computer networks, such as Ethernet. Although more expensive than standard UTP cable, it is much less susceptible to interference and can carry much more data over much longer distance.


RG 59 is the most commonly used coax because it is smaller in dia. and easy to work with)

up to 1,000ft

RG 6 size is between the two.

up to 1,500ft

RG 11 cable is the largest in diameter and harder to work with.

up to 2,000ft




CCD Cameras are much more sensitive to power fluctuations, due to the fact that the CCD Sensors have 4 integrated processors compared to the one processor found on a CMOS sensor. CCD cameras usually have much better picture quality, resolution and color balance.



CdS Sensor

A type of sensor that turns on and off IR LEDs automatically at the designated LUX.




Condensation may occur on the camera lens that caused by the remained infinitesimal moisture that accumulated during a long storage period when your camera is turned on first time and to resolve the problem, do nothing and just leave the camera until all condensation get dried. Once the condensation goes away, it won't form again and it will get dried fast if the camera head is exposed to the sunshine.

The condensation problem persists, the waterproof or weatherproof sealing on the camera head may have been cracked to permit the moisture through and the cracked sealing should be repaired properly with 100% waterproof adhesive materials such as Epoxy bond, adhesive plumbing gel, or adhesive in-lined heat shrink tubes, etc.



Communication Interface

RS-232C is short for recommended standard-232C, a standard interface approved by the Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA) for connecting serial devices.

RS 485 is used for multipoint communications: more devices may be connected to a single cable- similar to e.g ETHERNET networks, which use coaxial cable.

RS-422 & 423 are standard interfaces approved by the Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA) for connecting serial devices. The RS-422 and RS-423 standards are designed to replace the older RS-232 standard because they support higher data rates and greater immunity to electrical interference. All Apple Macintosh computers contain an RS-422 port that can also be used for RS-232C communication. RS-422 supports multipoint connections whereas RS-423 supports only point-to-point connections.




CMOS cameras have a less-expensive image sensor than CCD cameras and the other benefits of CMOS are small size and low-power consumption.




Composite Video

A type of video signal in which all information-the red, blue, and green signals (and sometimes audio signals as well)-are mixed together. This is the type of signal used by televisions (NTSC) in the United States.

In contrast, most computers use RGB video, which consists of three separate signals for red, green, and blue. In general, RGB video produces sharper images than composite video does.




click to enlarge...The latest cutting-edge technology that captures cleaner and superior high Resolution pictures even objects surrounded by strong back light..



Daynight Function

This day/night camera adjusts to a variety of lighting conditions to ensure the highest picture quality - even in extreme low light conditions. When the light level drops too low for accurate video identification in color, the camera automatically switches to black and white video to capture more detail.



Day Visibility

A visible range of camera sees clearly under the normal daylight condition that light intensity level (LUX) is equal or more than the camera specified minimum illumination LUX level.



dB (Decibel)

Is a measure for comparison of two quantities with one another. In common usage when two quantities have dimensions of power then their dB ratio is 10*log(Q1/Q2). So if Q1 is 10 times greater then Q2 it is 10 dB more. If Q1 is equal to Q2 then it is 0 dB more. Another popular measurement is "dBm", where a signal of strength Q1 is compared to 1.0 milliwatts. Then if Q1 is 10.0 milliwatts it is 10 dBm higher in power. If two quantities have dimensions of voltage then their dB ratio is 20*log(Q1/Q2) since power is proportional to voltage squared.



Diversity Wireless Receiver

A type of receiver that uses multiple antenna's to reduce the problems associated with multipath. There are two basic types of diversity systems. Those that use a single receiver and switch between antennas, and those that use multiple antennas and receivers and switch between receiver outputs.




The removal of unwanted artifacts in video material. The simplest noise reduction works primarily by comparing one frame to the next and removing tiny specks that are not the same in each frame. More advanced dynamic noise reduction (DNR) circuits not only handle temporal reduction (frame-to-frame), but also deal with spatial noise reduction, which detects and removes undesirable noise within the same frame. The major roll of Digital Noise Reduction (DNR) technology not only  improves the quality of the video by reducing noise, which lets reduce the video file size dramatically and you record for longer periods.




Digital Slow Shutter (DSS) technology improves the light sensitivity of the camera and extends its usable range in low light conditions.



Electronic Shutter

Ability to control the integration (of light) time to the sensor at the shuttle speed 1/60~1/100,000 sec  and compensates for moderate light changes in indoor applications without the use of auto iris lenses.

Electronic Shutter, one of the major features of CCD camera, is not really a moving shutter, but a clever piece of signal processing. Under low light conditions, the CCD is allowed to gather signal at the electronic shutter speed of full 1/60th of a second. Under brighter lighting conditions, the video processing chip automatically responds by reading the CCD and then immediately "early purging" it, resulting in precise control over the video level. Even at a shutter speed of 1/100,000th of a second, the CCD camera is still delivering 60 images per second, but each image is gathered over a much shorter period of time. It doesn't end with the CCD...the image is constantly monitored and optimized by advanced on board signal processing circuitry. The end result is a fantastic picture, with no fiddling, no adjustments, and best of all, unbelievable reliability.



Electronic Daynight Function

Electronic (virtual) Daynight Function allows switching from day to night mode only by adjusting some parameters of the AE (Automatic Exposure) configuration and displaying the images in black and white virtually. But having the IR Cut filter still physically remained in front of the image sensor, the daynight function would not perform properly and produce high quality B&W videos.



Ex-View CCD

EX-View" is a sensitivity-enhancement technology developed by SONY to improve light sensitivity of its CCD by a factor of two for visible light and a factor of four for near-infrared wavelengths.

EX-View is a proprietary SONY technology in which the P/N junction of each photodiode in the CCD matrix is specially fabricated to have much better photon-to-electron conversion efficiency. In addition, each photodiode (representing one pixel in an image) has a microscopic lens fabricated over it to better capture and focus light onto the active semiconductor junction. This results in an improvement in light sensitivity of 2 times for visible light and 4 times for near-infrared (800 ~ 900 nm) compared to the conventional CCD versions offered by SONY. The LUX rating of the EX-View CCD is two times better than the premium SONY Super HAD CCD for both visible and near-infrared wavelengths



External Lens Control

External lens control knobs outside of the camera housing make installation and setting up the camera easier.





An increase in voltage or power, usually expressed in dB.



Ground Plane

In telecommunication, a ground plane structure or relationship exists between the antenna and another object and a ground plane may consist of a natural surface, such as the Earth (or ocean) or an artificial surface of opportunity (such as the roof of a motor vehicle).




The HAD sensor is an abbreviation of the Hole-Accumulation Diode sensor newly developed by Sony. It is a photo sensor consisting of a hole accumulation structure added to an n+P diode.



HD Video

HD-TVI (High Definition Transport Video Interface) is the latest generation of the HD video signal that transmits the 1080p Full HD video over conventional RG-59 or RG-6 Coax cable up to 1,500ft. It also transmits the HD signal over CAT5/CAT6 twisted pair cable up to approximately 100ft and it is recommended a pair of UTP Balun in order to minimize the video quality loss. The HD-TVI camera only can be viewed and recorded through HD-TVI DVR system and the video output cable normally consists of BNC connector which can be disconnected for rewiring. The great advantages of the HD-TVI DVR are it is compatible with all different resolutions, brands, and TV systems of the HD-TVI cameras and also can be used together with all previous analog cameras and IP cameras mixed. This HD-TVI DVR allows user to adjust the  HD-TVI camera configuration via OSD (On-Screen-Display) menu and the camera configuration also can be adjusted with UTC (Up The Coax) controller by connecting it via CVBS Analog BNC output connector of the HD-TVI camera

(high-definition serial digital interface) is the first generation of the HD video signal that transmits the 1080p Full HD video over conventional RG-59 Coax cable up to 300ft & RG-6 Coax cable up to 550ft. The HD-SDI camera only can be viewed and recorded through HD-SDI DVR system and the video output cable normally consists of BNC connector which should never be disconnected for rewiring. HD-SDI DVR is only compatible with all same resolutions and TV systems of the HD-SDI cameras and a transmission range can be extended endlessly in using a repeater at the interval of 300ft over RG-59 and 550ft over RG-6 Coax cable.

(High Definition Composite Video Interface) is the 2nd generation of the HD video signal that transmits the 1080p Full HD video over conventional RG-59 Coax cable up to 900ft & RG-6 Coax cable up to 1,200ft. It also transmits the HD signal over CAT5/CAT6 twisted pair cable up to approximately 100ft and it is recommended a pair of UTP Balun in order to minimize the video quality loss. The HD-CVI camera only can be viewed and recorded through HD-CVI DVR system and the video output cable normally consists of BNC connector which can be disconnected for rewiring. HD-CVI DVR is only compatible with all same resolutions, brands, and TV systems of the HD-CVI cameras.




click to enlarge...High Spotlight Back Light Compensation function is especially effective when your surveillance job requires to read the license plate while surrounded by strong headlight.




Through the use of the ICR (IR Cut Filter Auto Removal) function a real Daynight functionality of the camera can be realized in using a so-called auto filter changer, the IR Cut Filter can be swiveled in front of the sensor in order to block out the interfering infrared light. In the night mode the IR Cut Filter is moved away so that IR light may pass through in order to produce high quality black & white video.



Image Stabilizer

The image stabilizer function minimizes the appearance of shaky images caused by low-frequency vibration and maintains a normal horizontal resolution. This function is useful for outdoor mobile surveillance and traffic monitoring application.




Frequency of light, invisible to the human eye, mainly used for covert night surveillance. Your camera must feature or capable to turn it on manually if available any one of the required specification among Daynight function, AGC (Auto Gain Control), ALG (Auto Level Control), Auto Change of Color Video to B&W at Night, or IR-cut Filtered in order to view the IR light. Additionally it is strongly recommended the LUX level of your camera offers at least 0.01 LUX or lower in order to view the IR light up to the maximum distance as it offered; otherwise the IR light won’t be viewed correctly.



IP (Ingress Protection) Classification Codes

Basis of IP Rating System:
International Standard IEC 60529 outlines an international classification system that describes the sealing characteristics of electrical equipment. The classification system defines the level of protection provided by enclosures to prevent the ingress of foreign objects and moisture into the electrical equipment. The classification system uses the “IP”code,or “Ingress Protection” code, to define the level of seal. The IP code uses a system of two numerical digits to define the level of both foreign object and moisture protection. Although the IP classifications primarily used for establishing the level of seal in electrical equipment, it is adapted herein for determining the level of seal in passive electrical components.

Degrees of Protection (Foreign Bodies)...
The first digit of the IP code indicates the degree of protection against solid foreign objects from entering the electrical device. The table below outlines the level of protection against foreign objects for each level.

Degrees of Protection (Moisture)...
The second digit of the IP code indicates the degree of protection against the ingress of various forms of moisture (e.g. drip, spray, submersion, etc.) into the component. Tests to determine the level of protection are carried out with fresh water and do not take into account the use of solvents.

IP Level
1st Digit

Description of Protection Level


Not protected


Protected against solid objects of 
50mm diameter & greater


Protected against solid foreign objects of 
12.5mm diameter & greater


Protected against solid foreign objects of 
2.5mm diameter & greater


Protected against solid foreign objects of 
1.0mm diameter & greater


Protected from the amount of dust that 
would interfere with normal operation


Dust tight

IP Level
2nd Digit

Description of Protection Level


Not protected


Protected against vertically falling water drops


Protected against vertically falling water drops
when enclosure is tilted up to 15°


Protected against water sprayed at an angle
up to 60° on either side of the vertical


Protected against water splashed
against the component from any direction


Protected against water
projected in jets from any direction


Protected against water
projected in powerful jets from any direction


Protected against temporary immersion in water


Protected against continuous immersion
in water, or specified by the user



IR-Corrected Lens

Use a day & night or monochrome cameras for the IR corrected lenses. Regular color cameras will not be affected by the IR corrected lens. When using the day/night or monochrome cameras, nearly any outdoor, as well as some indoor applications, will require, or at least benefit from using IR corrected lenses. This is because many natural light sources also contain infrared light, lighting changes with a higher infrared, lower infrared, or without infrared at all. When using ordinary lenses, the result is a blurred, or in a worst case scenario, a completely unfocused picture. 



IR Cut Filter

Infrared (IR) cut-off filters are used with color CCD or CMOS imagers to produce accurate color images.  An IR cut-off filter blocks the transmission of the infrared while passing the visible. New reflection type filters are short-pass interference filters that reflect infrared light with high efficiency and these new filters suitable for day/night security cameras. Conventional absorptive type filters are made with special optical glass that absorbs near infrared radiation and it should be removed when intend to view IR light at night.




Light emitting diodes, commonly called LEDs, are real unsung heroes in the electronics world. Basically, LEDs are just tiny light bulbs that fit easily into an electrical circuit. But unlike ordinary incandescent bulbs, they don't have a filament that will burn out, and they don't get especially hot. They are illuminated solely by the movement of electrons in a semiconductor material, and they last just as long as a standard transistor.

Invisible 940NM or 950NM IR-LED: Shows no red glow on the tip of IR LED when it turned on and the IR light beam is also   completely invisible to human eyes. It is the best for the complete undetected video surveillance and viewing object in close range in the dark.

Strong 850NM IR-LED: Shows red glow on the tip of LED when it's on, but the emitting IR-light beam is invisible to human eye and it produces a longer emitting power than the invisible 950NM IR-LED. It is suitable for the undetected surveillance video and viewing objects that are in long range in the dark. 

White LED:
The white light beam is seen by human eyes exactly same as what you see from a conventional LED flashlight and it it the best when objects are viewed in color at night as they seen in daylight. 



Lens Specification of Conventional Lenses

Board Lens


View Angle
















































Multi-layer Pinhole Lens


View Angle
















Single-layer Pinhole Lens


View Angle















Lens - Iris

There are two types of auto iris lenses that are DC iris and video iris.
Both have a motor-driven, automatically adjustable iris opening that responds to changes in light levels and both also use an analog signal (often analog video signal) to control the iris opening.

The difference between the two is where the circuitry to convert the analog signal into motor control signals is located. In a DC-iris lens, the circuit resides inside the camera; in a video iris, it is inside the lens. A camera with an auto iris lens can be affected by diffraction and blurring in bright environments, when an iris opening becomes too small.

This problem is especially prominent in megapixel and HD cameras since the pixels in the image sensors are smaller than standard resolution cameras. Therefore, the image quality is more dependent on getting the right iris opening (aperture) in order to optimize image quality.

Fixed iris
A fixed iris lens can be used in indoor environments where light levels may be constant; the iris opening cannot be adjusted and is fixed at a certain f-number. The camera can compensate for changes in the level of light by adjusting the exposure time or using gain control feature.

Manual iris
The iris can be adjusted by turning a ring on the lens to open or close the iris. This is not convenient in environments with changing light conditions, such as in outdoor or mobile surveillance applications.



Line of Sight

Is a clear unobstructed view between the transmitter to the receiver. An analogy would be a straight beam of light, like a flashlight pointed towards the receiver with nothing in the way.





LUX is a unit measuring the intensity of light and a CCTV camera requires a certain amount of light produced by natural or artificial illumination.

The amount of light is defined by LUX (Lumens per Square Meter) and one LUX is one candle light volume at one-meter distance.

Followings are some examples of natural lights expressed in LUX and these light intensity levels are where the LUX- specified CCTV camera begins to produce decent images.

Full daylight
(10,000 LUX) - Very dark day (100 LUX) Twilight (10 LUX)
Deep twilight
(1 LUX) - Full moon (0.1 LUX) - Quarter moon (0.01LUX) – Starlight (0.0003 LUX)




Flush mounting - The camera body portion is hidden behind wall or inside ceiling that only the lens portion is shown externally.

Surface mounting - The camera is mounted right on the ceiling or wall and whole camera portion is shown externally. 



Night Visibility

A visible distance in the total darkness only using the built-in lighting source on the camera itself and longer visible distance can be obtained using other external lighting sources.



OSD Camera Setting

A small program built-in to the camera to help users to setup the camera function via OSD (On Screen Display) with ease. No more reading a manual and tipping dip-switches to configure the camera.




Short for Picture Element, a pixel is a single point in a graphic image and the quality of a imaging system largely depends on its resolution, how many pixels it can display.




AC (Alternating current) refers to the form in which electricity is delivered to businesses via outlets.

Direct current (DC or "continuous current") is the constant flow of electric charge from high to low potential. This is typically in a conductor such as a wire, but can also be through semiconductors, insulators, or even through a vacuum as in electron or ion beams. In direct current, the electric charges flow in the same direction, distinguishing it from alternating current (AC).




An agreed-upon format for transmitting data between two devices.





Short for Pan Tilt Zoom.




Obstructive objects exposed to the IR light that are too close to the camera will produce a white glow reflection, so pay attention to put objects at least 10ft away from the IR illuminator. Also beware that it will create a strong reflection if IR light is illuminated directly to any glass material and so do not attempt to illuminate the IR light through any window from inside out.




RF (Radio Frequency) is a frequency at which coherent electromagnetic radiation of energy is useful for communication purposes. Also, the entire range of such frequencies.




Radio Frequency Interference.




click to enlarge...The SENS-UP function is used to increase the brightness level by adjusting the shutter speed and very useful especially when viewing objects in the extreme low light condition with no external lighting support. This function can bright up the minimum illumination level up to 0.00008Lux ~ 0.0001Lux and even allows to see in the total darkness.



Signal System

The signal system used in America & Canada is called "NTSC".  Western Europe and Australia use a system called "PAL for color & CCIR for B&W", and Eastern Europe and France use "SECAM". Without standards conversion, it is impossible to view a video program that is recorded in a foreign country without first converting it.



Smart IR

click to enlarge...The SMART IR function automatically adjusts the IR beam evenly spread when objects are close to your camera lens, resulting to prevent washed out or under exposed dark spot images and perfect for high traffic areas such as store fronts, home entrances, and parking lot gates, etc.



Super HAD

Version of Sony’s high performance HAD (Hole-Accumulation Diode) sensor with improved sensitivity from the use of more efficient on-chip micro lenses that made possible to minimizing lost light and improving the overall sensitivity per pixel.



TV-Lines (TVL)

Resolution is measured differently in a video imaging system then in a photographic system. The maximum number of light and dark lines resolved horizontally determines the resolution level of a video system and the higher TVL means the higher video resolution. Each line transition is counted and expressed in TV-Line (TVL) or in Lines of Horizontal Resolution (LoHR) rather than in cycles.



UTC Controller

UTC (Up The Coax) Controller allows to adjust the camera configuration via OSD (On-Screen-Display) menu by connecting it with the CVBS Analog BNC output connector of the OSD built-in camera.




A lens with an adjustable FOV (Field of View).



Connector Type

click to enlarge... 




The WDR (Wide Dynamic Range) camera is for producing and delivering clear image to the objects surrounded by strong back light, while still keeping the background visible.



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